Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in dogs
The papers and publications presented below aim to increase our knowledge of the prevalence, symptoms, risk factors and treatment of PTSD in dogs, especially in those working in harsh environments, such as military and search and rescue dogs. The authors of the articles seek to explore the issue in depth to provide information relevant to dog owners and veterinarians who are responsible for the care of these animals.
Dogs are also at risk for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
The article "Canine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Symptoms, Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options" by Martín-Quintos et al. (2021) presents a review of symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment options for PTSD in dogs. The topics in this study are relevant to dog owners who may notice symptoms of PTSD in their pets, as well as to veterinarians who diagnose and treat the disorder.
The authors emphasize that PTSD in dogs is increasingly being diagnosed. Symptoms in dogs with PTSD can include overreactivity to stimuli, anxiety, aggression, apathy, sleep and eating disorders. Risk factors include trauma, neglect, social isolation, and a lack of stable, calm relationships with caregivers. Some dogs suffering from PTSD exhibit symptoms similar to the human disorder, such as avoidance of places associated with traumatic experiences.
The authors outline various treatment options, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, but note the need for further research into the effectiveness of these methods. The article also discusses unconventional treatment methods, such as the use of essential oils and meditation, but their effectiveness has not been conclusively proven.
The publication is worth reading if you notice symptoms of PTSD in your pets. It conveys needed information on treatment and care of the sick animal. Veterinarians, too, will find valuable information on diagnosing and treating PTSD in dogs in the article. They can use different treatment methods, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, depending on the needs and individual characteristics of each patient.
Dogs - faithful companions can also suffer the effects of stress
"Behavioral changes in military working dogs during combat deployment: a review of current knowledge and implications for post-traumatic stress disorder" by Cooper et al. (2018) discusses behavioral changes in military working dogs during their participation in combat operations. The article presents findings on military dogs and their behaviors that may indicate the development of stress disorder among these animals.
The authors point out that military dogs are exposed to many stressors during their service, such as loud noises, explosions, violence and separation from their handlers. As a result, they often develop stress symptoms such as over-reactivity, apathy, anxiety and other behavioral problems. Some military dogs show increased aggression toward humans after returning from combat missions.
The article also presents research findings that suggest military dogs may develop PTSD similarly to humans. Similarities are pointed out between PTSD symptoms in humans and dogs, such as anxiety, hyperarousal and reactivity to stimuli.
Regular examinations of working dogs are recommended to diagnose stress symptoms earlier and prevent the development of PTSD. If symptoms develop, the authors suggest using various treatments, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, depending on the needs and individual characteristics of each patient.
The article "Posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors in military working dogs involved in combat deployments" by Bragg, Bennett-Jenkins, Hoffmann et al. (2018) focuses on PTSD in military dogs involved in combat deployments and associated factors.
A study was conducted that analyzed the prevalence of PTSD in military dogs and factors associated with the disorder. It was found that PTSD is common in military dogs that have participated in combat operations. Symptoms in these animals include anxiety, over-reactivity, social isolation and sleep disturbances. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in military dogs include traumatic experiences, long periods of separation from a caregiver, and lack of proper veterinary care. An additional but equally important risk factor associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in military dogs is low levels of training.
Dogs that had a lower level of training prior to a combat mission were more likely to develop symptoms compared to those that had more experience and training. This detail points to the importance of adequately preparing and training dogs prior to their involvement in combat operations, which can affect their ability to cope with stressful situations and reduce their risk of developing the disease. The results of this study have implications for both owners and veterinarians. Military dog owners should be aware of the potential for their pets to develop PTSD and monitor their behavior and well-being. If symptoms develop, a veterinarian should be consulted as soon as possible to ensure proper treatment and support for the animal.
It is important for veterinarians to diagnose and treat PTSD in military dogs. The article emphasizes the importance of earlier diagnosis and effective treatment strategies, such as pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy, to prevent long-term behavioral problems in these animals. The conclusion of this article is that PTSD in military dogs is a serious problem that requires attention and appropriate care. Monitoring and diagnosing symptoms, as well as effective treatment, are crucial to the well-being of these animals.
We're getting better at recognizing PTSD in animals
The article "Prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms in a cohort of urban search and rescue dogs" by Cumming, Sánchez, González-Medina et al. (2020) analyzes the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms in dogs working in search and rescue teams in post-disaster areas and associated risk factors.
The prevalence of PTSD symptoms in dogs working in search and rescue teams was evaluated. It was found that some dogs exhibited symptoms similar to PTSD, such as over-reactivity, anxiety, social isolation and behavioral changes. Risk factors associated with the onset of these symptoms included low levels of training, inappropriate on-the-job experiences, and lack of a consistent and calm relationship with caregivers. The age of the dogs can affect the occurrence of symptoms.
The study found that older dogs working in search and rescue were more likely to experience symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder than younger dogs. This detail suggests that older dogs may be more susceptible to the negative effects of traumatic experiences and require special attention during diagnosis and care.
Working dog owners should be aware of the potential for their pets to develop PTSD symptoms and monitor their behavior and well-being. If these symptoms develop, it is important to consult a veterinarian to determine an appropriate treatment and support plan for the dog.
Veterinarians play a key role in diagnosing and treating symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in animals working in harsh rescue search environments. Owners of these dogs should be aware of the psychological burden on their charges and act to provide appropriate support and care.
It's worth caring about your pets' well-being, even when they are suffering without physical symptoms
"PTSD in Military Working Dogs: A Narrative Review and Future Directions" by Kim, Kulkarni, Lee et al. (2019) provides a review of the literature on PTSD in military dogs and provides directions for further research in the field.
It discusses various aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder in military dogs, including risk factors, symptoms and effects of the disorder. Military dogs are exposed to many traumatic experiences, such as explosions, violence and separation from their handlers, which can lead to the development of PTSD. Symptoms of this disorder in military dogs include over-reactivity, anxiety, aggression, social isolation and behavioral changes.
The article also outlines diagnostic and treatment options. The use of various diagnostic tools, such as behavioral assessment questionnaires, is suggested to effectively identify symptoms. In terms of treatment, the article highlights the importance of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy in alleviating symptoms and improving the quality of life of military dogs.
Further research in this area focuses on identifying biomarkers of PTSD in military dogs and developing effective treatment strategies. The article suggests that research on pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, animal-assisted therapy and occupational therapy may benefit the treatment of military dogs with PTSD.
However, there is a need to develop more precise and reliable diagnostic tools. Currently, the diagnosis of this disorder is based mainly on observation of behavioral symptoms, which can be difficult to determine conclusively. The authors emphasize the need to develop objective and standardized diagnostic methods, such as biomarkers or brain images, to identify PTSD in dogs more quickly and accurately. Such developments in diagnostics would allow earlier diagnosis and intervention, which would improve the quality of life of dogs suffering from the disorder and the effectiveness of therapies better tailored to the individual needs of four-legged patients.
E. Martín-Quintos, A. Fernández-Lorente, A. Mercado-Aleu, i in. (2021). Canine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Symptoms, Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options. Animals, 11(8), 2269.
S. A. Cooper, A. J. Cox, M. A. Shea, i in. (2018). Behavioral changes in military working dogs during combat deployment: a review of current knowledge and implications for post-traumatic stress disorder. Military Medical Research, 5(1), 25.
R. F. Bragg, E. Bennett-Jenkins, D. E. Hoffmann, i in. (2018). Posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors in military working dogs involved in combat deployments. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 84(2), S100-S105.
E. J. Cumming, M. S. Sánchez, J. A. González-Medina, i in. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms in a cohort of urban search and rescue dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 37, 58-64.
C. Y. Kim, K. L. Kulkarni, E. L. Lee, i in. (2019). PTSD in Military Working Dogs: A Narrative Review and Future Directions. Military Medicine, 184(9-10), e669-e677.